Exercise of sexual reproductive rights of Venezuelan immigrant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.
They are women who migrated after 2018, considered by UNHCR as Venezuelans displaced abroad, people who are likely to be in need of international protection, requiring protection against forced returns and access to basic services, regardless of age, educational level and migration status. The population is a database of migrant population of which 2,495 are women of legal age who migrated from Venezuela between April and May 2019, through the migratory corridor between Ureña/San Antonio and Villa del Rosario Cúcuta, digesting to different destinations in South America including Colombia. It is a population that has continued to be linked to the High Border Studies Group (ALEF) of the Simon Bolivar University, because it has been consulted for various studies to study the living conditions in the host countries. And in this study we want to make visible the need to understand the conditions of female migration in terms of access to and exercise of SRR. The sampling frame design was non-probabilistic. An online survey was applied to 2495 women during April 1 to June 3, 2021, obtaining the response of 86 women (sample for this study). 3.5%
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We considered the increased vulnerabilities of this population due to: - Being women who migrated after 2018, considered by UNHCR as Venezuelans displaced abroad, people who are likely to be in need of international protection, according to the criteria collected in the Cartagena Declaration but not seeking asylum; requiring protection against forced returns and access to basic services (UNHCR, 2020, p. 64). Social vulnerability in terms of social inequalities and disadvantages in access to resources and opportunities, as well as risks of exploitation, abuse or violence (Parella Rubio, 2005). The variables under study are sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive health, fertility, and episodes of psychological, physical and sexual violence. The instrument applied consisted of 65 questions, validated by an expert in migration and health. Likewise, before starting the questionnaire, each woman read the respective informed consent form, through which she accepted or not to participate in the study. If they did not wish to do so, the consultation was automatically concluded. This document was developed from a quantitative and descriptive approach. Background of the target population and sample In 2019, the Human Mobility Report II was published. Realities and perspectives that those who migrate, being its objective to characterize the Venezuelan who migrated through the Táchira (Venezuela) - Norte de Santander (Colombia) border. On that occasion, a structured survey was applied to the target population (Venezuelan migrants of legal age) during the period from April 8 to May 5, 2019 (Mazuera-Arias et al., 2019). In this 2019 study, the non-probabilistic sampling type was used, using the consecutive sampling technique, which included all subjects accessible and available in the spatial dimension (migration control registration office at the Migration Colombia office, located in La Parada, Villa del Rosario municipality, Norte de Santander, Colombia). This procedure resulted in a sample size of 12957 subjects surveyed. To make the 2019 study a reality, several Venezuelan institutions joined forces, such as the Universidad Católica del Táchira (UCAT), Universidad Católica Andrés Bello (UCAB), Servicio Jesuita a Refugiados (SJR, Venezuela), Centro Gumilla, Observatorio de Investigaciones Sociales en Frontera (ODISEF) and, for Colombia, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Cúcuta, with the collaboration of Migración Colombia. During the period in which this information was collected, each migrant was asked voluntarily for their personal e-mail address, information that was recorded in the primary information collection instrument in 2019. At that time, they were informed that their decision and response was optional, clarifying that the purpose was to conduct future studies on Venezuelan immigration abroad. In this process, 2495 mails were obtained from women.